Ships used in World War II are only the remains of ancient Liburnas, Galias and Caravels. Historical science (from the material remains of ancient cultures) concludes the underpinnings of human hands and mind, the degree of development of productive forces, and the dominant social relationships in a community. Likewise, the historical sciences conclude in a marvelous way the course, development and outcome of maritime battles in the world war. Drywall technical data on the thickness of the armor, the power of the naval engines, the number and caliber of the cannons and torpedoes connected to the full picture are about warships as a classic maritime empire instrument. But also the power instrument that the Navy Empire disputed, that it would come to its tron.
“Who rules with the sea, governs commerce; who governs the commerce also rules with the”world-market” trade – was taught in the late 19th century in the UK. In the Victorian era, the “Queen of the Sea” was climbing to the pinnacle of its world power. Half a century before the Second World War, the United States fleet program of 1889, adopted the doctrine “Two Powers Standard”, according to which the British fleet should be stronger than the two strongest together. At the end of the 19th century, the British Naval Forces had 38 battle ships and 131 cruisers. The forces of the other two strongest fleets together (French and Russian) had 38 battleships and 65 cruisers. In those years, the aspirations of the old and new colonial powers for the new division of the world, which the bright mind of Lenin analyzed in the work of “Imperialism as the highest stage of capitalism”, strengthens. The country’s policy, the doctrines of the armed forces, the economic power of the country, and the available technical conditions have always influenced the strength of the Navy, the idea of its use and the internal organization of the Navy. The potential opponent also had an influence on the development of the Navy. The country’s capitalists – the US, Germany, Japan and Italy – have rapidly built their navy as one of the fundamental instruments of their imperialist expansion. These countries imposed a race on naval weapons and seriously jeopardized the British maritime hegemony. At the beginning of the 20th Century, changes were made in the old relationship of naval forces. The new naval forces are strengthened by the German, American and Japanese navy.
The technological foundations of the then war fleet include new technical achievements – steam turbines, oil boilers, diesel engines, electro-motors.
The fiery power, speed and armor protection of the British “Dreadnought” battleship far superior in performance than its predecessor make it a prototype of the capital ship and World War II. All the great naval forces now pay attention to the Navy Air Force. The British, Russian, and American Navy begin work on adapting and repairing the first hydro-aircraft carrier. To build a large fleet, the Sea Power theory has a decisive role. It is based on the experience of naval wars to create and preserve colonial empires. This theory was formulated by American Admiral and Military-Maritime Writer Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914).
Photo: Alfred Thayer Mahan
The essence of his theory is the battle over the sea, which can be accomplished by large fleets of battleships by destroying or neutralizing an opponent in an absent bicycle. And the World War brings newspapers into the structure of war fleets. The concepts of decisive and general maritime battles have not been realized. Submarines, aviation, and mines were once almost unlimited power of surface ships that were supposed to solve the issue of prefrontal at sea and outreach the maritime war as a whole. The number of cruisers increased as the destroyer wound up as a universal warship. The submarine becomes the most successful anti-war attacker, and the torpedo boat has successfully replaced the torpedo. For the defense of the submarine, patrol and escort ships were introduced. A fierce war with mines encourages the construction of miners and miners. Though there was little effort, there was a need for descent ships. Then the first aircraft carrier appeared. The war fleets developed between the two world wars. The reason for this was the policy of tightening up the struggle for new markets, the economic crisis of 1929, the creation and development of totalitarian regimes in Italy, Germany and Japan. The Versailles Treaty imposed on Germany restrictions on the construction of some types of warships. The conference in Washington, 1922, limited the consequences of further bidding of the largest naval forces – the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France and Italy. The United Kingdom then equated its naval forces with the US. The Washington Agreement on Disarmament limits the total tonnage of warships and aircraft carrier between the signatories, determining the upper limit of deplasmin and the caliber of the main weapon. The United States, the United Kingdom and Japan have undertaken not to raise the established bases on the Pacific Ocean islands (the exception is Hawaii for the US, Japan’s metropolis islands). The London Conference in 1930 was concluded by an agreement to halt the construction of the battleships until 1936.