Ships in World War II (Part II)

Hancock battle ship after Kamikaze hit on 7th April 1945
Photo:Hancock battle ship after Kamikaze hit on 7th April 1944
The London Conference in 1930 concluded the ban on the construction of ships by 1936, the ban on adapting battleships to aircraft mounts and building submarines over 2000 tonnes.
Today’s observer believes that the history of these efforts to maintain a balance is a deviation from the common attitudes of selfishness. The Washington and London Disarmament Contracts stipulate quantitative restrictions, which are “the back in the back” of qualitative training of the war fleet. In Germany in 1931, a pocket ship “Deutschland” (weighs 10,000 tons) was reported due to the deplasman’s limitation. By armor protection and firepower, “Deutschland” was a stronger hull with reduced quality of steel, lightweight metal for overhead and electro-welding. Fire power is increased by introducing three-pipe and four-pipe kits and perfecting the shooting technique by applying central niche devices and enhancing command-computer devices. High pressure boilers, gear reducers and diesel engines reduce the weight of the propulsion plant while simultaneously increasing the propulsion economy and the speed of the boat. Italy and France had a limited battlefield and increased the speed of their larger warships by reducing the action radius and protection. The United Kingdom, the USA and Japan acted in reverse because of the vast oceanic battlefields. The United Kingdom has sought to ban the use of submarines in the war. However, it succeeded in achieving the limitations of deplasmans and caliber cannons. Upon Hitler’s arrival to power, Germany dramatically improves the speed of diving and the depth of diving of its submarines, as well as the means to detect opponents. 1936 in London, the II Disarmament Conference was held, resulting in an open debacle. The arms race continues. 1935 France concludes with the then fascist Italy the principle of equality of power. Mussolini is in secret building a war fleet for its aggressive goals. His Marina participates in the aggression in Ethiopia and in the stifling of Republican Spain. 1935 The United Kingdom made a deal with Germany of 35: 100 for the total tonnage and the individual class of ships. The new German fleet program begins with an ambition of 184,000 tons of battalions, 24,000 tons of submarines and 217,000 t of other warships. 1938 plan “Z” envisages the construction of 129 submarines (up to 1944), 8 aircraft carriers and 10 battalions (up to 1948). Japan, however, gives the greatest attention to the construction of the navy of those years. The British and Americans have given subordinate role-to-face and torpedo-bomb attacks on their aircraft carriers and navy aviation for slowing their fleet movement. The Japanese do not differ from the aircraft carrier and the battleship. The performance is seen in Pearl Harbor and during the next months of their conquest.
Immediately after the failure of the Second Conference in London, the United States begins to build 6 “Washington” battleships, and the United Kingdom five King George V ships, weighing 35,000 tons.
brod Washington

Photo: Washington battle ship

bojni brod King George

Photo: King George V battle ship

At the beginning of the Second World War, the warships of the battalions were 45,000 tons, and the caliber of their artillery 406 mm. Cruise ships were built intensively, and the biggest development had aircraft carriers. Deplasman moved to 26000t, speed 30-34 knots, armed 60-80 aircraft. The submarine increases the distance of navigation and depth of diving, and the torpedo-gun weapon. Then a naval aviation was developed. An ephemeral technical discovery was a radar and an underwater electric locator. The European-African and Silent Nightfall were the main arenas of World War II. The Nazis kept the Atlantic coast of Europe – from the North Cape to the Pyrenees until mid-1940. The Mediterranean was Italian. Italy could not finish the expansion in Africa. 1941 Italy withdraws. Hitler resigns from the “See Löwe” operation (an invasion to the British Isles) due to the lack of air force. The majority of the land and air forces Nazis of Germany are fighting against the USSR – especially after the German defeats in Moscow and Stalingrad – favorable conditions are created for allied operations in the area Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic. Germany builds 1098 submarines during the war.

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