German Navy (Part I)

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In the period between the two world wars, the German Navy had to be rebuilt. All its ships were new, but there was no continuous development from World War I. In the years of disarmament, the design of the German navy has been quiet. German designers continued to work on submarines in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. While the other navy navies applied new techniques and new weapons, Germany has stagnated throughout the decade. The Bismarck boat was enlarged and embellished with the version of the ships of Baden, i.e. ships in which the British made experiments before their launch, and which helped them to develop new projects.
In World War II, Germany had opponents who blocked its position on the open sea. Still, he could pick a moment when he would attack the enemy and concentrate on building big individual power boats rather than building inferior ships. In Germany, heavy ships were considered to be expensive assets. The lack of determination to risk ships was associated with a sense of inferiority before the British Navy. Debacle happened in the Barents Sea on May 1, 1942, when destroyers accompanied by an arctic convoy stayed on the runway of Hipper and Lűtzow. Hitler orders to halt the construction of large ships.
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Photo: Ship Bismarck upon sinking (www.history.com)
1939 Germany had weak powers of oceanic submarines, because the generals were obsessed with the grand plan “Z”, hoping to have enormous power in battleships and large war units by 1944. This plan did not take into account the external response and ability of the German industry to tackle such a construction program, which would be feasible for the remaining war plans to be abandoned. Germans always had a reputation for their technical abilities and plenty of their equipment was well designed. There was a small gap, for example, a complete flaw with the inefficient torpedoes discovered during the Norwegian invasion. Their boats were over-rated. The armor that Bismarck had had was of equal quality as a shield on American and English ships. One omission is less efficient use of scientific knowledge especially in the radar area. The concept of US and British effective research for operational purposes was the side of the German Supreme Command. The Atlantic Allied victory is also linked to their efforts to build merchant ships and escort units.
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Photo: Ship Bismarck (www.history.com)
Capital ships
After the end of the First World War, Germany had almost no ship of its extraordinary magnitude (Hochseeflotte). She had a small number of pre-dredging ships to train new personnel. It should not build a ship larger than 10,000 tons, with maximum 280 mm caliber cages. It was intended that Germany be on the level of the Southeastern countries. The German response was the production of a new warship called the so-called “armor”, known as a “pocket warship”. This ship included armaments of defense boats for battle ships, two 280-mm three-barrel cannon balls, torpedo tubes and 150 mm firearms, with hull and shield armor. Innovation was done in the engine room, where diesel engines were used for the drive. That’s why the pocket battalion had 2x faster than other battleships of that time. This was a significant action radius. Other technical innovations have been applied, such as the wider application of technical welding, to prove that the ship does not have more than 10,000 tonnes of weight. De facto, under full load the tonnage of the ship was much higher. 3 sailboats, Deutschland (Grasshoppers), Graf Spee and Scheer were sensations in naval military circles. These boats were not dangerous though they looked like that. Boat Graf Spee suffered a defeat at La Plate because he had only two main canyons.
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Photo: Wilhelmshaven Shipyard (www.history.com)
Graf Spee
Displacement: 12,100 tons normal, 16,200 tons when the boat is under load
Length of boat: 187.98 m
Ship width: 21.71 m
Draft: 5.79 meters
Drive: two-stroke diesel engines, 65,000 hp on axle, 26 knot speed
Armor: belt 38-102 mm, deck 19-57 mm, cannon balls 127-139 mm
Tops: 6x280mm, 8x150mm, 6x105mm, 8x37mm, 10x20mm
Torpedo tubes: 8×532 mm
Aircraft: 2 (1 catapult)
Moved to the sea: June 30, 1934 at Wilhelmshaven Shipyard.
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Photo: Wilhelmshaven Shipyard (www.history.com)

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