1. Circle (Columbus Circle, Thriller, 2012)- Columbus Circle is a 2012 American independent thriller film directed by George Gallo and co-written by Gallo and Kevin Pollak.The film stars Selma Blair, Giovanni Ribisi, Beau Bridges, Amy Smart, Jason Lee, and Kevin Pollak. The film was released directly to video in the United States on March 6, 2012. Producer Christopher Mallick is accused of stealing millions of dollars from customers of his now defunct billing company “ePassporte” to fund the production of his films.This was Robert Guillaume’s last film before his retirement in 2014 and his death in October 2017. The film is about an heiress who has shut herself inside her Columbus Circle apartment for nearly two decades. A detective investigating the death of one of her neighbors and the duo who move into the subsequently vacant apartment force her to face her fears of the outside world.
2. Egg (Columbus’ egg – turning a good story on its head)- The egg of Columbus is a popular expression in the US. And as its name suggests, it comes from an epochal story about Christopher Columbus, as documented by friend and fellow Italian Girolamo Benzoni in his 1565 book ‘History of the New World’.
The story goes that over dinner, certain Spanish noblemen were less than impressed by Columbus’ discovery of the America’s, pointing out that given time, anyone could have done it and that it took no great skill on his part.
Rather than take offence, in response Columbus picked up an egg and placed a wager that none of his dinner companions would be able to make it stand up on its end without any help. They failed of course. And when they had all tried, Columbus simply cracked the end slightly and balanced the egg vertically on the now flattened end. The moral of the story? A challenge is only simple once you know how to pull it off – the triumph is in having the courage to try something new and being the first to succeed.
The story is so well known that many puzzles and even monuments have been inspired by it. And yet, Columbus’ egg may not even have been created by Columbus. A very similar story was also told 15 years earlier about architect Filippo Brunelleschi, who went on to design Florence Cathedral. Some say the dome of the cathedral has a flat tip in reference to the egg conundrum he too posed to disgruntled officials.
3. Columbus’s Ships-As everyone knows, Columbus had three ships on his first voyage, the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. The flagship Santa Maria had the nickname La Gallega. It was a nao, which simply means “ship” in old Spanish; today, we might call such a ship a carrack. She was fat and slow, designed for hauling cargo, not for exploration. Some sources say that the Santa Maria was about 100 tons, meaning that it could carry 100 toneladas, which were large casks of wine. There has been much speculation about just how large such a ship would be; the best current thinking, by Carla Rahn Philips, puts the length of Santa Maria at 18 meters, keel length at 12 meters, beam 6 meters, and a depth of 3 meters from keel to deck.
The Santa Maria had three masts (fore, main, and mizzen), each of which carried one large sail. The foresail and mainsail were square; the sail on the mizzen, or rear, mast was a triangular sail known as a lateen. In addition, the ship carried a small square sail on the bowsprit, and small topsail on the mainmast above the mainsail.
The Pinta was captained by Martín Alonso Pinzón, a leading mariner from the town of Moguer in Andalucia. Pinta was a caravel, a smaller, lighter, and faster ship than the tubby Santa Maria. We don’t know much about Pinta, but it probably was about 70 tons. Philips puts the length of Pinta at 17 meters, keel length 13 meters, beam 5 meters, and depth 2 meters. She probably had three masts, and most likely carried sails like those of Santa Maria, except for the topsail, and perhaps the spritsail.
Smallest of the fleet was the Niña, also called Santa Clara, captained by Vicente Añes Pinzón, brother of Martín. The Niña was another caravel of probably 50 or 60 tons, and started from Spain with lateen sails on all masts; but she was refitted in the Canary Islands with square sails on the fore and main masts. Unlike most ships of the period, Niña may have carried four masts, including a small counter-mizzen at the stern with another lateen sail. This would have made Niña the best of the three ships at sailing upwind. Philips puts her length at 15 meters, keel length 12 meters, beam 5 meters, and depth 2 meters.
How fast did they go?
As you can guess, speed of sailing vessels varies considerably with the speed of the wind. Over several days, ships of Columbus’s day would average a little less than 4 knots. Top speed for the vessels was about 8 knots, and minimum speed was zero. These speeds were quite typical for vessels of the period — and indeed, typical for the entire Age of Sail up until the time of steamships and clipper ships. So overall, 90 or 100 miles in a day would be typical, and 200 phenomenal.
Of the three ships on the first voyage, the Santa Maria was the slowest, and the Pinta was the fastest. The differences were small, however, perhaps about 0.1 knot between them.
For a summary of the actual distances the fleet made every day of the voyage (in leagues), check out the First Voyage Log.
To see some more photos, check out the Columbus Foundation page for the Niña replica. There are also replica ships that sail out of Corpus Christi, Texas; here’s an article about them.
Second voyage ships
After the success of his first voyage, the Spanish Sovereigns spared no expense in fitting out Columbus’s second voyage with a total of seventeen ships for the colonization of Hispaniola. These ships were:
• Mariagalante, also known as Santa Maria, namesake of the original sunk on the first voyage.
• Niña or Santa Clara (same ship as on the first voyage)
• Pinta (probably same ship as on the first voyage)
• San Juan
All of these were caravels except for the two naos, Mariagalante and Galician. In February 1494, twelve caravels returned from Hispaniola to Spain, leaving the two naos and three caravels (Niña, Pinta, andSan Juan). When Columbus returned to Spain he sailed in the Niña, along with another caravel, the Santa Cruz, also called the India, which was the first ship built by the Spanish in the New World.
Third voyage ships
Little is known about the ships of Columbus’s third voyage. Although we know Columbus started from Spain with six ships on his third voyage, we do not know the names of those ships. Upon arriving at the Canary Islands, Columbus sent three of the ships directly to Hispaniola, while he turned south to the Cape Verde Islands with the other three, before turning west across the Atlantic. The name of the ship that returned Columbus to Spain (in chains) is also unknown.
Fourth Voyage ships
Columbus was granted four ships, all caravels, for his fourth and last voyage to America in 1502. These were:
• Santiago de Palos
All four ships were lost on the voyage. Gallega had to be abandoned in an estuary in Panama because of Indian attacks, on April 16, 1503. Vizcaina was leaking so badly that she was abandoned shortly thereafter, also along the Panama coast. The remaining two ships made it as far as Jamaica before shipworm and leaks made it impossible to continue. After waiting over a year for rescue, Columbus finally returned home in 1504, making his last crossing of the Atlantic as a passenger.
4. Columbus Day-Columbus Day, which is on the second Monday of October, remembers Christopher Columbus’ arrival to the Americas on October 12, 1492. This holiday is controversial because the European settlement in the Americas led to the demise of the history and culture of the indigenous peoples. Columbus Day is a public holiday in some areas (see list below), where it is a day off and schools and most businesses are closed. In other areas, Columbus Day is a normal working day. Some Americans celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of their country with church services and other activities. In some towns and cities, special church services, parades and large events are held. Many celebrations happen in the Italian-American community. The celebrations in New York and San Francisco are particularly noteworthy. In Hawaii Columbus Day is celebrated as Discoverers’ Day, but it is not a state holiday.
Many states now celebrate Native Americans’ Day/Indigenous People’s Day instead of Columbus Day.
5. Who is Christopher Columbus?- Christopher Columbus is often portrayed as the first European to sail to the Americas. He is sometimes portrayed as the discoverer of the New World. However, this is controversial on many counts. There is evidence that the first Europeans to sail across the Atlantic were Viking explorers from Scandinavia. In addition, the land was already populated by indigenous peoples, who had ‘discovered’ the Americas thousands of years before.
Columbus Day originated as a celebration of Italian-American heritage and was first held in San Francisco in 1869. The first state-wide celebration was held in Colorado in 1907. In 1937, Columbus Day become a holiday across the United States. Since 1971, it has been celebrated on the second Monday in October. The date on which Columbus arrived in the Americas is also celebrated as the DÃ¬a de la Raza (Day of the Race) in Latin America and some Latino communities in the USA. However, it is a controversial holiday in some countries and has been re-named in others.
Columbus Day celebrations are controversial because the settlement of Europeans in the Americas led to the deaths of a very large proportion of the native people. It has been argued that this was a direct result of Columbus’ actions. It is clear that the arrival of the European settlers led to the demise of a large proportion of the history and culture of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It has also been argued that Columbus should not be honored for discovering North America, as he only went as far as some islands in the Caribbean and never got as far as mainland America.
6. The Journal -First encounters between Europeans and Native Americans were dramatic events. The assumptions and intentions of Christopher Columbus were so clear , as he immediately began assessing the potential of Native Americans to serve European economic interests. He also predicted easy success for missionaries seeking to convert these people to Christianity (Journal of Christopher Columbus, 1492)
Diaries-Christopher Columbus, Journal (1492)
… This present year of 1492, after Your Highnesses had brought to an end the war with the Moors who ruled in Europe and had concluded the war in the very great city of Granada, where this present year on the second day of the month of January I saw the Royal Standards of Your Highnesses placed by force of arms on the towers of the Alhambra, which is the fortress of the said city; and I saw the Moorish King come out to the gates of the city and kiss the Royal Hands of Your Highnesses and of the Prince my Lord; and later in that same month, because of the report that I had given to Your Highnesses about the lands of India and about a prince who is called “Grand Khan,” which means in our Spanish language “King of Kings”; how, many times, he and his predecessors had sent to Rome to ask for men learned in our Holy Faith in order that they might instruct him in it and how the Holy Father had never provided them; and thus so many peoples were lost, falling into idolatry and accepting false and harmful religions; and Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians and Princes, lovers and promoters of the Holy Christian Faith, and enemies of the false doctrine of Mahomet and of all idolatries and heresies, you thought of sending me, Christobal Colon, to the said regions of India to see the said princes and the peoples and the lands, and the characteristics of the lands and of everything and to see how their conversion to our Holy Faith might be undertaken. And you commanded that I should not go to the East by land, by which way it is customary to go, but by the route to the West, by which route we do not know for certain that anyone previously has passed. So, after having expelled all the Jews from all of your Kingdoms and Dominions, in the same month of January Your Highnesses commanded me to go, with a suitable fleet, to the said regions of India. And for that you granted me great favors and ennobled me so that from then on I might call myself “Don” and would be Grand Admiral of the Ocean Sea and Viceroy and perpetual Governor of all the islands and lands that I might discover and gain and [that] from now on might be discovered and gained in the Ocean Sea; and likewise my eldest son would succeed me and his son him, from generation to generation forever. And I left the city of Granada on the twelfth day of May in the same year of 1492 on Saturday, and I came to the town of Palos, which is a seaport, where I fitted out three vessels very well suited for such exploits; and I left the said port, very well provided with supplies and with many seamen, on the third day of August of the said year, on a Friday, half an hour before sunrise; and I took the route to Your Highnesses’ Canary Islands, which are in the said Ocean Sea, in order from there to take my course and sail so far that I would reach the Indies and give Your Highnesses’ message to those princes and thus carry out that which you had commanded me to do. And for this purpose I thought of writing on this whole voyage, very diligently, all that I would do and see and experience, as will be seen further along….
7. Monument to Christopher Columbus (Spanish: Cristóbal Colón)- which in Catalonia is called Mirador De Colom. The monument is located along the shore of the same square. It was built in 1888 as part of the World Exposition called “Modernism”, where Barcelona became an important center for artists such as Picasso and Nonella. The Columbus monument has a special significance since Kolumbus sailed out of the barcelonian port in 1492 thinking he would arrive in India but came to America and discovered a new continent. It’s a pillar about 60 feet high on top of a seagull fingering toward the creek. There is an elevator that can reach the top, and enjoy a spectacular view.
8. Columbus Square (Madrid, Spain)-The Square of Christopher Columbus or Plaza de Colón was designed to honor the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s journey to America. The square contains two very different artworks – Columbus Statue and Columbus Monument, which celebrate the great explorer King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel have sent to conquer new lands and their wealth. The statue of Christopher Columbus stands on the top of a tall pillar on the Paseo de la Castellana promenade, looking out to the open sea, and a cascade fountain at the foot of the column. Columbus’s monument is a newer date, and that’s actually a big piece of cement that resembles anchor. In the square there are also beautiful parks known as Gardens of Discovery.
9. Columbus City- Columbus is the state capital of and the most populous city in the U.S. State of Ohio. With a population of 892,533 as of 2018 estimates, it is the 14th-most populous city in the United States and one of the fastest growing large cities in the nation.This makes Columbus the third-most populous state capital in the US (after Phoenix, Arizona and Austin, Texas) and the second-most populous city in the Midwest (after Chicago, Illinois). It is the core city of the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses ten counties. With a population of 2,078,725, it is Ohio’s second-largest metropolitan area.
10. Christopher Columbus’ s birth and death- is one of the world’s most famous sailors who was born in 1451 in Geneva, and is known for his ocean-going trips to America. Nobody knows where the funeral remains of Christopher Columbus are. He died in Spain in 1506. His remains were sent to Santo Domingo in 1537. But in 1795 they were sent to Havana, and they were supposedly sent back to Spain in 1989. Noone is sure yet.