Obesity is known to be an excess body mass that cannot be defined solely on the body weight. Muscular individuals can also be overweight compared to the standard without increasing adipose tissue. Obesity can be classified via body mass index (so-called body mass index-BMI-kg / m2). When the BMI is between 18.5 and 24.9 it is considered that the BMI is from 25 to 29.9, it is about overweight. Obesity is divided into Grade I, II, III obesity or so-called extreme obesity. When the BMI is from 30 to 34.9 it is obesity I, if from 35 to 39.9 it is obesity II, if it is greater than 40 it is extreme obesity or grade III.
Men have less adipose tissue than women, although BMI is the same. The distribution of adipose tissue influences the risks associated with obesity. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, indicating a condition where the circumference of the waist is greater than 88 cm in women and greater than 102 cm in men. According to the new criteria, parameters indicating obesity are waist circumference greater than 80 cm in women and greater than 90 cm in men.
Obesity is the result of increased energy intake, decreased energy consumption, or a combination of both. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue is due to genetic and environmental factors. Causes of obesity can be damage to the hypothalamus, adrenal and genital diseases, and the use of certain medicines. One of the common causes is decreased thyroid function or hypothyroidism.
The thyroid gland is butterfly shaped and is located in the anterior neck. This gland secretes the two hormones thyroxine and triiod-tironin known as T4 and T3. T4 and T3 affect all metabolic functions in the body, growth, stimulate all the processes of carbohydrate metabolism, fat, increase the need for vitamins, affect the basal metabolism and body weight. Hyperthyroidism is a disorder of thyroid function — a clinical syndrome resulting from a deficiency or decrease in thyroid hormones.
The normal operation of the thyroid gland and the prevention of obesity can be achieved through a balanced menu and the food we bring into the body. Obesity is a chronic condition and requires lifestyle change and therapy. More small meals per day are recommended. Breakfast is required. Dinner should not be after 8pm. We should eat slowly, avoid meals as we walk, chew food well (digestion of food starts in the oral cavity) because the impulse of satiety within half an hour comes into our brains. Fruits and vegetables should be taken, pastries and bread should be avoided. Fish and veal (with low glycemic index) should be eaten once a week. The way food is prepared is important, avoid fried foods and cooked foods. Any physical activity is welcome (one hour of brisk walking daily, cycling, swimming). Extreme obesity is treated with medication or surgery. If there is an increase in body weight and in addition to a decrease in food intake, it is advisable to check the thyroid hormones TSH and T4. Follow-up procedures in consultation with your doctor.