The word “passport” comes from the old Hungarian word “paszus” derived from the German word “pass.” It is an official document for every person. It is used for traveling abroad. There are exceptional cases where individual countries agree to enter their territories with their ID cards through bilateral agreements.
This travel document or document comes in several types: passport, joint passport, diplomatic passport, official passport and passport. The passport serves to cross the state border, travel, stay abroad and return to the country of origin. The passport proves its holders identity in foreign countries. The passport contains the following information: first and last name, gender, date and place of birth, picture and signature, personal number and other information that depends on the countries of the world.
In the event of a passport missing, the holder is obliged to report the disappearance to the competent authorities for the disappearance of travel documents and visas, to the nearest diplomatic or consular post of his country. Embassies and consulates have an obligation to provide all necessary assistance to the holder of the lost passport.
Some states issue special children’s passports for minors.
Pets (and generally animals) should have a passport to cross the border.
The passport is issued for 5 years (citizens up to 21 years of age) in many countries of the world. For persons over 21 years of age, the passport is valid for 10 years.
Each country in the world has special regulations for issuing passports and the term of validity of passports. Most countries in the world issue a passport for ten years, although there are exceptions. Some countries (Finland, South Korea and Taiwan) issue a short-term passport if the passport holder has not completed compulsory military training.
Most states have a ban on holding multiple passports of the same type at the same time. A passport is also a type of passport issued in cases where the passport is lost or stolen. The duration of the passport is 30 or 60 days.
A diplomatic passport is a special travel document issued to state representatives and other persons who have been granted diplomatic status in order to protect and prove diplomatic status.
Diplomats of the United Nations and UN specialized agencies have a special type of travel document called Laissez-Passer. Such travel document shall be issued in accordance with Article VII. UN General Conventions on Privileges and Immunities of 1946.
Citizens of EU Member States do not need a passport to enter the territory of another EU Member State. An ID card is sufficient.
To stay in non-EU countries but members of Schengen (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland), a passport is required although there is no border control.
A biometric passport known as ePassport and e-Passport is a new type of passport that uses biometric data to indicate the owner’s identity.
The chip is a small graphic on the bottom right of the cover. This symbol is the first step in distinguishing the biometric passport from the ordinary one. This tag hides an electronic data carrier, ie a chip. It is usually placed in the cover or on one of the pages of the passport. The passport owner’s biometric data is stored on it. Biometric data on the biometric passport chip are left and right fingerprints and biometric image of the person, personal data of the holder, first name, citizenship, date of birth, gender, passport type, country code, passport, personal identification number, date of issue and the date of expiry of the passport and the issuing authority. This is actually all the information that is on the inside of the passport with the photo.
Some countries use iris photo as biometric data. In addition to this information, additional information such as the name of the parent or spouse can be stored on the chip. The advantage of this type of passport is that it offers greater protection against misuse and unauthorized modification than a classic passport. Reduces the risk of identity theft and improves border protection by quickly checking e-passport holders entering the country. This passport makes traveling around the world easier. Most developed countries in the world have replaced classic passports with biometrics. Many states are in the process of being introduced. In many countries, the rule is that no visa is required for the e-passport holder.
A chip in a biometric passport works similarly to any credit card reader. Police officers at the border crossing points a passport to the reader. An identity check is performed following the prescribed procedure. Here we can point out that different countries use different IT programs. Everyone has a common reading of a photo of the owner or his iris. Of course, our on-chip data is protected by several types of data theft and tamper protection. State border security has always been a priority. Today, the importance is greater because of the numerous terrorist attacks. This is how the idea of a biometric passport was born for the security of interstate borders. This passport is valid for 10 years. For the development of new technologies, shorter deadlines are recommended. 1988 Malaysia introduced the first biometric passport.
Kuala Lumpur International Airport (Malaysia) allowed biometric passport holders to cross the border without contacting officials. It is enough to attach the biometric passport to the reader at the crossing and identify yourself with a fingerprint. The system checks the resulting printout with the one on the passport chip. If the data is identical, the gateway is enabled. The introduction of such a system is under consideration by Australia. Some countries (Albania, the Netherlands and Brazil) have integrated a biometric passport and identity card into one identification document. This reduces the cost of producing ID documents by 50%. It is expected that the passport will in the future take the form of a credit card and that all countries of the world will replace the classic biometric passports. Whatever its shape and life, it made it possible to identify people faster. Reduced waiting times at border crossings. Human rights organizations opposed the introduction of a biometric passport. However, most developed countries have introduced biometric passports.
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