UV radiation or ultraviolet radiation is part of the spectrum of the solar system. UV waves consist of UVA, UVB and UVC rays. The entire spectrum of UV radiation, however, does not reach the Earth’s surface. The ozone layer of the atmosphere absorbs UVC radiation, which is the richest in energy and most harmful to life on the planet. When we are exposed to the sun during sunny days, UVA and UVB waves affect us. UVB rays are of lower energy and are almost completely absorbed by the surface layer of the skin. UVA radiation is more harmful and can penetrate deeper layers of the skin. It can cause mutation and unfavorable cell transformation. Sunlight contains about 20 times more UVA than UVB rays. For example, the window glass does not transmit UV waves, but UVA waves easily pass through the window glass. Glass screens mean they do not protect people from the side effects of the sun.
Solar radiation has a beneficial effect on vitamin D synthesis
Solar radiation has a beneficial effect on the synthesis of vitamin D. Chemical conversion of provitamin into the active form of vitamin D3 occurs under the action of solar wave energy and in the presence of appropriate pigments in the skin. Through vitamin D3, the sun has a beneficial effect on many metabolic processes in the body. Sun exposure for 15 to 25 minutes a day is the dose for the prevention of rickets and osteoporosis. In summer, exposure to UV rays is not recommended in the period from 10 am to 4 pm. Then the most pronounced harmful effect of the sun on the skin. Adverse effects (caused by frequent and uncontrolled sun exposure) can cause acute and chronic changes in the skin.
Acute changes are redness, blisters and pain. Allergic reactions occur accompanied by red seals and a feeling of itching and irritation. Deep damage to skin cells can result in a decline in skin immunity that is usually accompanied by local fungal or viral infections (pitriase or herpes simplex).
Chronic changes occur with the accumulation of side effects that alter the metabolism of the skin (over time). These are usually dry and thickened skin, wrinkled skin, the appearance of keratosis (a horny sometimes scaly formation on the skin) or dilated capillaries on the face or legs that are clearly visible to the eye (telangiectasia). The most serious disease due to chronic changes in the skin is, of course, the appearance of malignant skin cancers.When the sun’s rays are strongest, exposure of the skin to the sun should be avoided. If we are still in the sun, we should use appropriate dermato-cosmetic preparations for skin care and protection. Daily use of skin cream or milk is recommended for moderate sun exposure. These are usually preparations based on nourishing and protective oils (avocado oil, almond oil, coconut oil, jojoba oil and olive oil). If sun exposure is prolonged and if a larger area of skin is exposed to the sun, it is recommended to use sunscreen. It is important to choose a product with adequate SPF values (UVB protection) that contains a UVA protective component to keep the skin completely protected.