A revolutionary medium and a magical always square box interesting to people all over the world





A television receiver using a Nipkow disk in the Tekniska museet, Stockholm


The magical square box of all shapes and sizes since its first design has been of interest to people from all over the world. Television. Or, abbreviated TV box.
The TV box has great power on people of all generations, social statuses and interests. We enjoy TV shows of entertaining, educational, musical or children’s, informative, film content. From the TV box we receive numerous warnings about health, economic, social or political problems in the homeland, the region and around the world, meteorological reports, tips, TV series, Show programs, quizzes in studios, culinary shows, and much more interesting for all ages groups.
Television is the most influential medium today. The name is derived from the Greek word “tele” (far) and the Latin word “visio” (looking). Several scientists have contributed to the development of television. Paul Nipkow invented the first mechanical module of television — by which he sent images through wires.

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Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow was a German technician and inventor. He invented the Nipkow disk, which laid the foundation of television, since his disk was a fundamental component in the first televisions. Hundreds of stations experimented with television broadcasting using his disk in the 1920s and 1930s, until it was superseded by all-electronic systems in the 1940s.The first public television station in the world, Fernsehsender Paul Nipkow, was named in his honour.

The world’s first public television station, started in Berlin in 1935, was named Fernsehsender “Paul Nipkow” after Nipkow – the “spiritual father” of the core element of first-generation television technology.[2] He became honorary president of the “television council” of the “Imperial Broadcasting Chamber”. Nipkow’s glory was used by Hitler the Nazi government as a tool of nationalist scientific propaganda. Nipkow died in Berlin in 1940 two days after his 80th birthday and had an official ceremony organised by the Nazi government.In one of the last episodes of the British spy drama series Secret Army, Nipkow is credited with being the sole inventor of television by Standartenführer Kessler as he unveils the closed-circuit TV surveillance cameras and monitors he has set up at Gestapo headquarters in Brussels.

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Alan Campbell-Swinton and Boris Rosing in 1907 and 1908 created a television system using a cathode ray tube. This period marks the beginning of mechanical and electronic television.

Boris Lvovich Rosing (Russian) (1869–1933)-is one of the earliest inventors in the field of television. In 1907, he envisioned a TV system using a cathode-ray tube as a receiver. Rosing filed a patent application in Germany on November 26, 1907 (and on the improved version of his system on March 2, 1911). He followed up with a demonstration of which a report was published in Scientific American with diagrams (see below) and a full description of the invention’s operation. Rosing’s system employed a mirror-drum apparatus as camera and a cathode-ray tube as receiver to transmit black-and-white silhouettes of simple shapes. The cathode-ray tube had been developed a decade earlier by a German, Karl Ferdinand Braun (in 1897). Rosing’s system was primitive, but it was one of the first experimental demonstrations where the cathode ray tube was employed for the purposes of television. Vladimir Zworykin (before emigrating to the U.S.A.) was a student of Rosing and assisted him in some of his laboratory work. Rosing continued his television research until 1931 when he was exiled to Arkhangelsk by Joseph Stalin. Rosing died in exile in 1933.

Alan Archibald (A.A.) Campbell-Swinton (Scottish) (1863-1930)-is the first man to envision a completely electronic television system, Campbell-Swinton was a Scottish consulting electrical engineer born in Edinburgh, and educated at the expensive Fettes College. He was one of the first to explore the medical applications of radiography, opening the first radiographic laboratory in Britain in 1896. He first described an electronic basis of producing television in a 1908 letter to Nature.

In 1911, Campbell-Swinton expanded on his 1908 proposal for an all-electronic television system in his presidential lecture to the Röntgen Society of London. The Times of London reprinted the lecture eight days later. Swinton described a design using cathode-ray tubes to both capture the light and display the image. Basic cathode-ray tubes at this time had been invented, and much similar to today, they were relatively large vacuum tubes with a long neck on one end and a flat screen on the other. An electron gun in the neck could shoot a stream of electrons toward the flat end of the tube which was covered with an internal coating of light-emitting phosphor. Swinton reasoned, by scanning, or sweeping the electron stream back and forth in rows from top to bottom while varying the intensity of the electron stream, a moving image could be drawn in the same manner as with Nipkow’s disks the “receiver”.

While Swinton’s foresight was near perfect, his description lacked many key details. Swinton, nor anyone else at the time, knew how to make such a system work. Approximately two decades would pass before inventors such as Kalman Tihanyi, Philo Farnsworth, and Vladimir Zworykin would use Swinton’s ideas as a starting point to patent workable fully electronic television systems.In 1915, Campbell-Swinton’s television system was featured in Hugo Gernsback’s Electrical Experimenter magazine.He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1915.

Then Charles Jenkins invented the first practical mechanical television system. Vladimir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth invented the first practical system of the electronic part of television.
The first irregular broadcasts of programs on the then television began in London. Television was available to people (who did not have a TV) in about 30 public viewing rooms to watch the Olympic Games in Berlin and Hamburg. The next step was the black and white world of television. Up to 1936, television was primarily broadcast via mechanical television technology. This was followed by a switch to analog signal. The logical sequence of events was today’s transition from an analog signal to a digital signal. 1996 The United Nations Assembly decides to celebrate November 21 every year as World Television Day, ie the overall impact of television in human life.

http://www.bairdtelevision.com/swinton.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Gottlieb_Nipkow

Tekniska museet

Museivägen 7, Stockholm
Tel: 08-450 56 70 (telefonväxeln öppen tisdag – fredag kl. 12-16)
info@tekniskamuseet.se
Box 27842, 115 93 Stockholm

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