Today, the production of ornamental plants is a lucrative and modern business. It is a botanical production that needs to be approached extremely seriously and with a high level of knowledge. It is not difficult to master the knowledge of ornamental plants. It requires some experience and overcoming obstacles until good practice in production is gained. In the production of ornamental plants there is the concept of horticultural architecture. It is a combination of the construction industry with ornamental plants. Ornamental plants complement the gardens with living attributes. Thus, a little landscape effect is added to the buildings (floristics). Combining different plants in gardens can lead to a number of interesting combinations. Thus the lily can be found as part of a botanical composition during the planning of construction ventures. These can be different gardens and backyards, supplementing urban areas with a part of green areas, decorating your own backyard, adding this bulbous ornamental plant during certain special events, etc. There are several types in this paper. Species differ in a number of morphological and other characteristics. Greenery that needs a little and regular watering. Keep indoors or outdoors. Look for a light spot or partial shade Lily – there are a large number of species and cultivars of lilies that are classified in several ways. It is an officially recognized system developed by the North American Lily Society. It is a horticultural classification. It is used in exhibitions and in lily catalogs. According to this classification, lilies are divided into 10 groups, according to origin. A further division is into subgroups based on the shape of the flower. Lily (lily, lijer, lat. Lilium) is a genus of monocotyledons from the lily family (Liliaceae), a perennial with a bulb and an above-ground stem. The genus includes about 85 species of bulbous plants distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. More than half are of Asian descent. They are grown in almost all gardens, are used as potted plants and, very often, for cutting. Lilies have flowers of exotic appearance, often with a rich scent. They offer a wide range of sizes, shapes, colors, flowers and flowering times. The bulbs have fleshy scales that overlap. The flower stalks are erect. The leaves are arranged on the stem alternately or in one or more vertebrae. The flowers of most species are large and fragrant. They are gathered in clusters on thin stalks. The flowers are usually long. They can be upright (facing up), horizontal (facing outwards) and hanging. They have six anthers with thin and long filaments. The anthers are very long. The shape of the flower depends on the species. It can be tubular in the shape of a turban and a vase.
Lilies do not tolerate moist soil. The soil should be well drained. The bulbs are never in a state of complete dormancy. The most important part of the bulb is the basal plate, to which the shells are attached. The shells are modified leaves, which serve to store reserve nutrients. Lily bulbs are very delicate and fragile because they do not have a protective sheath like tulip and daffodil bulbs. They should be handled carefully. The bulbs are planted at a depth that is 2X of their height. The exception is L. candidum, which is always planted just slightly below the soil surface. They are planted in early autumn. If they are procured too late, they should be planted in the spring. Most lilies are planted in sunny or semi-shady positions. Semi-shade is achieved by planting bulbs next to deciduous shrubs. The soil should have a sufficient amount of organic matter, be well drained and well prepared, at least to a depth of 30 cm. As soon as the shoots appear in the spring, the plants are fed with fertilizer concentration 10:10:10. Feeding can be repeated once more, after 6-8 weeks, but the fertilizer should not be used after the flower buds have developed. During the growing season, the soil should be constantly moist. With the largest number of lilies, only one flower stalk develops from one bulb. The largest number of lilies are resistant to low temperatures. They can be left in the same place for many years. Only when it is noticed that the number of flowers decreases, the bulbs need to be removed and divided. This is done in late summer or early autumn, when the leaves turn yellow, by carefully removing the bulbs from the soil, dividing and planting each one separately. When lilies are used for cutting, the flowers are cut as soon as the first bud in the inflorescence is clearly see color. In the vase, the flowers gradually open. Lilies can be propagated by bulbs, seeds and tissue culture. If you want to increase the number of valuable hybrid lilies (when transplanting), the shells can be removed from the bulb and placed in an upright position in peat soil, in a hatchery or greenhouse. They can be placed in a plastic bag with peat, in a warm hatchery, as long as the shoots do not show. It is then transplanted into boxes with peat substrate at a distance of 2.5 cm. After the first season, when they create young leaves, the plants can be planted individually in pots, where they are further grown until they reach a size suitable for planting in a garden or greenhouse. Some lilies create small bulbs on the stems, below or above ground level. They can be removed in late summer, when they are ready to be torn off, and stored during the winter in crates with peat substrate. They are planted in boxes next spring. Seed propagation is a method suitable for the original species, which turn out to be faithful to the type, but not for hybrids and traits where this is not the case. Growing lilies from seed is a good way to obtain virus-free plant material. The plants obtained in this way bloom after 3-4 years. The seeds are collected in the fall, and kept in the refrigerator until spring. It is sown in the spring, in deeper seed boxes with a larger number of drainage holes, in peat. Seeds of smaller types are sown at intervals of 1.25 cm, and larger 4 cm. Sowing boxes, after being covered with foil, are kept in a protected area. Germinate seeds in about 3 weeks. Then the foil is removed. The seed box is placed in a well-lit place, but protected from direct sunlight. When the danger of frost passes, the sowing boxes are taken out of the protected areas, and placed in places protected from the wind, and covered with nylon at night. During later cultivation, the foil is completely removed. When the seedlings grow about 15 cm, they are transplanted into individual jars, in which they are left for 2 seasons, and in the third season they are transplanted to a permanent place. Classification of lilies in horticulture There are a large number of lily species and cultivars that are classified in several ways. It is an officially recognized system developed by the North American Lily Society. It is not a botanical, but a horticultural classification. It is used in exhibitions and in catalogs of lilies. According to this classification, lilies are divided into 10 groups, according to their origin, and further into subgroups, based on the shape of the flower. Asian hybrids — derived from a variety of Asian species including l. amabile, L. bulbiferum, L. callosum, L. cernum, L. concolor, L. dauricum, L. davidii, L. lancifolium, L. lankongense, L. Leichtlinii, L. pumpilum, L. wilsonii. The flowers are formed in clusters or shields, and are usually odorless. The leaves are narrowly ovate and alternately arranged.
Martagon hybrids — originate primarily from the species L. hansonii, L. martagon, L. medeoloides, L. tsingtauense. These lilies form clusters of turbanous, sometimes fragrant flowers and have vertebrae of elliptical leaves. Candidum hybrids — derived from L. candidum and other European species, except L. martagon. These lilies sometimes create fragrant, mostly turban flowers – singly or in shields or clusters. The leaves are elliptical, spirally arranged or spreading. North American hybrids — derived from American species L. bolanderi, L. humboldtii, L. kelloggii, l. pardalinum, L. parryi. They bear clusters of sometimes fragrant, mostly turban, but occasionally funnel-shaped flowers and have vertebrae lanceolate to elliptical leaves. Longiflorum hybrids — derived from the species L. formosanum and L. longiflorum. They bear clusters or shields of large trumpet-shaped or funnel-shaped flowers, often sweet-smelling; sometimes only 2 or 3 per stem. The leaves are straight to narrowly lanceolate and spreading. Trumpet and Aurelina hybrids — are derived from Asian species, including L henryi, L. leucanthum, L. regale, L. sargentiae, and L. sulphureum. They bear clusters or shields of usually fragrant flowers. The leaves are elliptical to flat, alternate or spirally arranged. Oriental hybrids — derived from East Asian species such as L. lexandrae, L. auratum, L. japonicum, L. nobilissimum, L. rubellum, and L. speciosum, as well as their hybrids with L. henryi. Their flowers are formed in clusters or panicles and are often fragrant. The leaves are lanceolate and alternate. Orient hybrids — created by crossing species and hybrids. Species and forms grown, without hybridization- with hanging flowers having bent tepals: l. martagon, L. cernuum, L. chalcedonicum, L. davidii, L. duchartrei, L. hansonii, L. martagon, L. monadelphun, L. wardiibut. Lilium candidum L. – white lily Originally from the Mediterranean (Greece, Lebanon, Israel, Turkey). It has been grown throughout Europe for a very long time. The bulb is white or yellowish, growing close to the soil surface. It is 1.2 to 1.5 m high. The flower stalk bears spreading, lanceolate leaves and 5-20 fragrant, pure white flowers facing outwards, about 10 cm in diameter. Each petal is 5-8 cm long, with a yellow base and a slightly bent tip. It blooms in early summer. In autumn it bears basal leaves that remain during the winter, but die with the ripening of the flower stalk. Varieties that are often grown are “Aureo-marginatum”, with yellow edges on the leaves. “Plenum”, with double flowers, “Purpureum”, in which the flowers have red streaks, “Variegatum”, in which the leaves have yellowish-white spots. Unlike other lilies, this one is planted very shallowly, in late summer. Lilium auratum Lindl. – golden Japanese lily Originally from Japan. It has been grown since 1862. The flowers are large in the shape of a bowl 22 cm wide, have a golden-yellow stripe. They have a strong smell. It blooms in August. It likes deeply cultivated, rich and permeable soil without lime, so it should be planted shallow, where it can have moist, cool conditions for growing seasons. There are two main varieties: var. Platyphyllum is taller and more lush, and is more commonly grown, and var. Praecox blooms earlier and has shorter stems, but the flowers are the same size as the first variety. Lilium auratum is one of the most beautiful lilies, and is widely used for hybridization. Lilium martagon L. – golden lily It is native to Europe and Asia. It has been cultivated for a very long time, since 1596. The bulb is oval, yellowish, from 90 to 150 cm. The leaves are lanceolate to ovate, arranged in vertebrae. There are up to 50 flowers on one stalk, hanging, with curled tepals, light pink to dark pink, with purple-brown spots, fragrant. The petals are 3-4.5 cm long. It is very easy to grow on fertile soils and in partial shade. It is completely resistant. It likes moderately deep planting. They do not like transplanting, but once they are received, they last a long time. Young plants grown from seed bloom only in seven years.
Various insects, snails and smaller mammals can destroy certain parts of the plant, and you should fight them with insecticides or agents that repel them from certain parts of the plant. Various fungal diseases can cause decay of underground or above ground parts of the plant, especially in cold and rainy periods. In that case, use one of the systemic fungicides, and it is even better to prevent such a problem by planting lilies in the most suitable place for their growth and cultivation. Lilies are also susceptible to viruses, such as the insect-transmitted lily mosaic virus. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this but the plant needs to be destroyed. There are some varieties that are resistant. They thrive despite the infection. Hyacinth markets and shops are full of the most fragrant hint of early spring – hyacinth. The sweet scent and irresistible shades of purple, white and pink captivate every plant lover. When deciding whether to plant hyacinths in the interior of the home or in the backyard, make sure the hyacinths have adequate growing conditions. If you place hyacinths outside, it is necessary to provide as much sunlight as possible. The outside temperature should then range from 18 to 24 degrees Celsius. If you plant hyacinths in jars inside the home – avoid exposure to direct light. It is best to place hyacinths in a room where they will have enough light throughout the day, but which will not be directly aimed at the flowers. It is not advisable to place hyacinths near a heater, radiator or other heat source. If you move hyacinths from shopping pots to household flower pots, care must be taken in the way they are planted. One third of the hyacinth bulb must protrude out of the ground when transplanting. The soil must be rich enough in nutrients. Water drainage space should be left. Hyacinths are enough to water once or twice a week. Before each watering, make sure that the soil is really dry. Too much water can easily cause the bulb to rot. It is recommended to bring water from the bottom of the bowl, ie to put it in a plate. Hyacinth root will request the necessary water. This can be easily fixed with a wooden stick that is driven into the ground and tied with a ribbon to the stalk of a hyacinth. If this option does not work for aesthetic reasons, you can also reach for another plant – bamboo. Let the hyacinth’s head rest on the bamboo. You can also attach the hyacinth with a ribbon or rope. If you own a cat or dog, be careful where you place the hyacinths. The hyacinth bulb is poisonous and can cause serious health problems for pets (even death if not responded to in time). If you have a dog, place hyacinths in an elevated place that cannot be reached. If you are a cat owner, it is better to avoid planting hyacinths and / or placing hyacinths in rooms where the cat does not have access. We usually bring hyacinths to our homes that are on the verge of flowering or in bloom. As they were in greenhouses at lower temperatures than the temperature in the home, they will bloom in just a few days. Such a sudden growth will also cause the weight of the flowers. Therefore, there is a possibility that the hyacinth is tilted to one side. This is possible if the hyacinth does not have enough light or the flowers do not match the soil.