There is little written history about the Illyrians and the history of this people and their state of Illyria. The Illyrians were an Indo-European ethnic group that immigrated to the western Balkans in the 2nd century BC. They inhabited the western part of the Balkan Peninsula in ancient times. That is why “Illyricum” is the ancient name for the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The ethnogenesis of the Illyrians dates back to the 3rd millennium, when they created the first significant political organization. Persistent and exhausting battles with the Romans began in 229 BC. The organization disintegrated into several tribes in 167 BC. After long struggles and resistance to the Roman expansion, the great uprising of 6-9 AD (the so-called Dalmatian-Pannonian uprising) was extinguished. The Illyrian tribes were subjected to a strong and efficient Romanization. The Illyrians gave Rome a large number of great soldiers and military leaders. Among these soldiers is a large number of deserving Roman emperors in the 3rd and 4th centuries. The Illyrians leave a number of achievements of material culture. Until the middle of the 19th century, the South Slavs were considered the descendants of the Illyrians.
Most of them received the Roman religion and believes, culture and customs, while the remaining inhabitants received the Slavic religion, believes, culture and customs after the arrival of the Slavs in the Balkans. and from the rivers Epirus and Danube (Albania, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina). The Roman province that included the Illyrian states was first mentioned 27 years before the new era. During the reign of Diocletian, it was divided into two provinces: Dalmatia (whose headquarters in Salona is today’s city of Solin, Croatia) and Prevalitan (whose headquarters are in Shkodra – today’s city of Shkodra in Albania).
The most famous Illyrian personalities that history remembers are King Agron, Queen Teuta and Gentia. Agron (? -231 BC) was the hereditary chief (king) of the alliance of Illyrian tribes, which included areas from today’s city of Šibenik (Croatia) to Ljesh (Serbia). The capitals were Skodar (Shkodra in Albania) and Risan (Risno in Serbia). King Agron’s wife was Queen Teuta. After Agron’s death, Queen Teuta was governor of her underage son Pines. Because of her subjects’ piracy, Teuta was at war with the Romans. When the Romans defeated Teuta, the queen retreated to the fortress of Risan (Rhizon). She undertakes to pay tribute to the Romans until her death.
The prehistoric art of the Illyrians is based on almost primitive monuments erected in honor of wildlife, forests, meadows, mountain trails and roads and pastures. The Illyrians worshiped and glorified the god Silvanus (protector of wildlife, forests and pastures). In honor of the Roman god Silvanus, they often made monuments under the clear sky – sub divo (under the stars). The god Silvanus was later in ancient Rome the god of forests and paths and the protector of drinking water sources.