In the late 19th century, British researchers announced that the presence of mold effectively stopped the growth of bacteria. The level of scientific evidence and mass production of penicillin (safe for health) occurred after the end of World War II.
The history of the invention of antibiotics is related to the discovery of penicillin. Namely, there was an accidental observation that the sown bacterial cultures decay around the colony of fungi from the family Penicillium.
Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming as a crude extract of P. rubens. Fleming’s student Cecil George Paine was the first to successfully use penicillin to treat eye infection (ophthalmia neonatorum) in 1930. The purified compound (penicillin F) was isolated in 1940 by a research team led by Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain at the University of streptococcal meningitis in 1942. For the discovery, Fleming shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Florey and Chain.
Antibiotics are drugs whose sale without a prescription is prohibited. Antibiotics should be used only on the advice of a doctor. These are drugs that destroy and stop the growth / reproduction of some micro-organisms (fungi, bacteria, protozoa).
An antibiotic will be effective if it is lethal to pathogens with maximum safety for humans. Each antibiotic passes through the bloodstream and is processed in the liver and excreted most often through the kidneys (regardless of dose, chemical composition and method of use).
Antibiotics should be used only if it is a identifiable cause of the disease and proven to be a micro-organism sensitive to this type of drug.
By 1944, the pharmaceutical industry had produced over 300 billion units of penicillin. These drugs were given to the U.S. Army as part of preparations for landing in Normandy. This drug undoubtedly played a significant role in reducing mortality during the war and immediately after the war.
The development of the pharmaceutical industry has increased with the invention of new types of antibiotics which were then part of mass production / use. Science has defeated nature with a prescription drug that was available even in the most remote parts of the planet.
However, the efficacy and availability of antibiotics have led to overuse in medicine and veterinary medicine. Bacteria defend themselves by altering genetic material and developing drug resistance traits. The World Health Organization has identified this phenomenon as a serious threat to health globally.
Antibiotics and mass vaccination are revolutionary products, changes and discoveries in medicine. These discoveries have contributed to the successful treatment of millions of people around the world and the eradication of many diseases.