The dream and the anthology of dreams have a long history
The earliest human experience is undeniably a dream. The man began to dream at dawn of intelligence. From these experiences in the semi-real world, man drew conclusions about the world in which he lived and acted. The Chaldeans were the first to engage in dream interpretations. Scientists have determined this from the found wedge-shaped records. At the Chaldean court there was a constant interpreter of dreams to whom many courtiers and dignitaries addressed. Then the dreams began to be interpreted by Jews and Persians. From the first book of Moses, the dream of seven fat and seven skinny cows is known, which Joseph interpreted as 7 fertile and infertile years, which brought him great glory and honor. There are several more of these anthological dreams in the Old Testament. The civilized world at that time included the area around the Mediterranean Sea and Asia Minor, so the skills of dream interpretation spread to Greece. In the temple of Aesculapius, they even treated the sick with dreams. The sick were placed on the skin of a ram and the dreams that the sick would dream were explained by the priests. So, based on these interpretations, ancient psycho-analysts and doctors wrote therapy. Artemidor’s dreamer is the strangest mixture of science and superstition. Artemidor was born in Daldis (Asia Minor) and lived from 134 to 200 AD. He wrote 5 books under the common title “Symbolism of Dreams”. Some writers later wrote about this book: neuroses that today’s reader rightly expects. “Artemidor drew attention to the psychological element. What matters is what someone dreams. Artemidor points out: Dreams stimulated by bodily needs (hunger, thirst, craving) have no special significance. Artemidor of the perversion of sleep and strangeness and incomprehensibility is to blame for the fact that man dreams in symbols — writes Artemidor.
The skill and practice of interpreting dreams from Greece passed to Rome. The famous orator, philosopher and politician Cicero believed in dreams, so he described in detail a prophetic dream dreamed by a young Roman. Two young Roman men arrived together in the Greek city of Megara. They did not find a place to spend the night together. Each young man went to a different house. In the middle of the night, one of the young men had a terrible dream: the figure of his friend appeared in front of him and asked for help because his host was preparing to kill him. The young man, all upset and scared, jumped out of bed to help his friend. Still, it was foolish for a young man to help a friend just because of a bad dream. So the young man continued to sleep. But as soon as he fell asleep, a friend appeared in his sleep and told him “since you didn’t save me, now avenge me, the boss killed me and hid the corpse under a pile of garbage that will take him out of town early in the morning and bury him in the field.” The young man was then deeply shaken. He decided to help his unfortunate friend even though it was all a dream. At dawn he arrived in front of his friend’s boss’s house. The host had just set off in a horse-drawn carriage outside the city. The young man asked to search the garbage on the horse-drawn carriage. He found the body of a friend.
Homer further held that the dream was the product of haunted spirits. Socrates believed in the divine origin of dreams. Plato set out on the trail of a teacher and understood dreams as a form of revelation. Democritus saw the essence of dreams in continuing the automatic work of the brain in the absence of new experiences. Aristotle believed that dreams are the result of traces that man carries and keeps from waking. Aristotle relentlessly repeated that dreams are the work of the human soul, even though the people believed in the divine origin of dreams. This thought of Aristotle was an incentive for other thinkers and scientists to research and study dreams. That is why Aristotle can be considered the originator of scientific dream research. Peoples from the north come to the world stage after the collapse of the Roman and Greek empires. They lived a nomadic life and did not have time to deal with dreams. For centuries, no one mentioned dreams or tried to interpret dreams.
The renewed interest and the first literary mentions of dreams appear only in “Nibelungen”. Krimhilda dreamed of a hawk which she fed and cared for. Two eagles suddenly land on the hawk and kill it. Overwhelmed with fear, Krimhilda told the dream to her mother. When Krimhilda last saw Ziegfried alive (before his murder) she had the following dream: she saw two hills crashing down on her husband and burying him. There was a clear meaning to this dream. Many years later Krimhilda arrives at Exel’s court to avenge the death of Siegfried. Her mother dreamed of many dead birds in the fields at the same time. Indeed, along the Raine River, many knights lost their lives in heavy fighting.
There are more records on the interpretation of dreams in the Middle Ages. During the siege of a city, King Louis XIV of France dreamed that someone from his bodyguard was killing him with a knife. In his dream, he carefully looked at the killer. In the morning he ordered the formation of a bodyguard and other courtiers. Louis XIV pointed a finger at the guard from the dream and told about the dream.
The Guardsman was surprised and confused but immediately admitted that he wanted to kill the king. On May 1, 1794, Robespierre spent the night at Saint-Guist in Saint-Germain. Suddenly he woke up and started screaming. He explained to Saint-Gist that he dreamed of a man with a board in his hands that said the letter “S” who wanted to kill him. Robespierre was guillotined a few weeks later and his executioner was called Samson. It is impossible to explain the authenticity of all these examples. One thing is for sure, the interpretation of dreams started faster and more and more people were interested in this natural phenomenon.
The great Goethe and Lavather gave great importance to dreams. Schopenhauer claimed that dreams are heavenly wide and surpass the human power of fantasy. That is why he went on to say that it is an unfair and limited understanding that he declares dreams to be a simple game for imagining in pictures. Niethze energetically adds: in everything you want to be responsible for your actions and deeds but you do not accept responsibility for your dreams. What a damn weakness and what a lack of courage. Nothing is so much its own as dreams. The subject, the form, the spectator in that comedy is you And that is where you are ashamed.
Jean paul has an opinion similar to Nietchze’s and says: a dream shines with a brightly bright glow in the barn of Epicurus and Augius, which we built, and we see that at night all the wild animals that are bound by the chains of human reason walk during the day.
Richard Wagner says through the mouth of one person: believe me the truest human thought is shown through a dream.
Gerhard Haputmann devoted much time to the study of the phenomenon of sleep: If dreams had been examined in detail and more carefully in earlier times today we might know more deeply the secret movements of the human soul.
The Arabs greatly influenced the development of dream interpretation skills until the 19th century. The Arabs invaded the Iberian Peninsula and Spain via North Africa. The Arabs endowed Europe with the skill of dream interpretation as well as all the other scientific disciplines they brought and which found fertile ground in Europe. In 1664, one of the most famous Arab Dreamers was published in Paris. He had great attention and especially at the French court. In 1540 a dream book was published in Augsburg. The author was the German physician Walter Hermann Rivisu who practiced the occult. A little later, the popular dream book of the Italian doctor, mathematician and astronomer Hieronymus Cardanus (Girolamo Cardano) was published. Cardanus’ mathematical works are still significant today, although Cardanus practiced the occult to earn a living.