There is an abundance of pollen of various plants in the air during the vegetation period
Speaking of allergens in the atmosphere, people most often mention allergens of organic origin (pollen of plants, fungi, mites, insect waste, algae, animal hair, etc.). Air pollutants (industrial waste gases, car exhaust, soot and dust) are also present in the atmosphere, in addition to the mentioned allergens.
According to the World Health Organization, the percentage of people with allergic manifestations in the last 30 to 40 years has increased significantly due to the interaction of weakened pollen (during the flowering of plants) and air pollutants. Sensitivity to the presence of pollen (pollen in the air) has been present since ancient times. The Persian leader Hinnie was attacked by coughing and sneezing about 2500 years ago when he landed on the Greek coast (most likely due to the mass flowering of a Mediterranean plant). Galen was the first to describe the occurrence of pollen allergy around 120 AD with the following words: “There are people who in the presence of some flowers get a bout of coughing and sneezing.”
Plant pollen is part of the air as a component of organic origin. There is an abundance of pollen of various plants in the air during the vegetation period from February to the end of October, beginning of November or until the first autumn frosts. Climate, flora composition, meteorological conditions and certain chemical factors affect the number and composition of pollen grains. , hornbeam, oak, white pine, mulberry. Beech, hemp, nettle, etc. It can be said that pollen of any plant species is a potential allergen because its proteins are foreign to the human body. A patient sensitive to one type of pollen is usually allergic to other types.
Being allergic means being sensitive to one or more substances. These can be food, chemicals, house dust, plant pollen, particles that fall off domestic animals. It is difficult to give a precise explanation that pollen has an effect on some people and has no effect on others. Genes are considered to be the most important and stress (excitement, fear, anger, anxiety) most likely intensifies the allergen attack. The allergenic properties of pollen originate from the surface and inside the pollen grain. In pollen of the genus Ambrosia, for example, 6 allergenic proteins have been identified. Antigens from pollen grains dissolve on the mucous membranes of the organism with which they have contact, the organism then stimulates the allergens to produce antibodies. Anti bodies are the body’s defenses. Antibodies lead to side effects if an allergy is present. When an allergic substance reacts with antibodies (the production of which it caused it), it causes the release of histamine in the body, which acts on blood vessels and lungs. It thus causes allergic reactions. Previously, there was a belief that pollen works only mechanically (with the relief of the barbed wire), while Dunbar (one of the researchers who dealt with this problem) determined that the antigenic power of pollen is a complex of antigens to which the body responds to antibodies. Pollen (aeroallergen) most often causes pollen sneezing, asthma, urticaria (hives) and other skin reactions. Signs of pollen sneezing are very characteristic (severe itching in the nose and eyes, itchy nose, itching and burning sensation often includes the palate, throat and larynx, sometimes fever, eyelids are swollen, eyes are red and full of tears). The person sneezes consecutively (10 to 20 times or more in a row) and sneezing is accompanied by copious secretions. The person is depressed and irritable and has a headache. Symptoms of asthma during an attack include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing fits. A person with asthma has difficulty breathing because there is an obstacle for air to pass into the lungs and out of the lungs.
Pollen is produced in pollen bags. The formation of pollen grains begins well before the flower buds open. The amount of pollen produced depends on the type and variety or hybrid and external factors. The biological function of pollen is fertilization.
Pollen can be transmitted to animals (insects, birds), wind and water. Prevalence by wind has a special significance for allergies because it cannot be prevented. Detailed data on the concentration of pollen in the air can be obtained through the Environmental Protection Agencies and Meteorological Organizations. Calendars are made in accordance with the standards of the International Association for Aerobiology. Detailed information can also be obtained from the Palynology Laboratories of the Department of Biology and Ecology.