Sterility is equally present in women and men, say family doctors
The need for partners to have children is a dream of a family, a certain desire to continue the species, the greatest proof of love for a partner and a logical consequence of living together. Every 10th couple has no children despite a great desire. It is extremely difficult for many couples / partners to expect a child who is not coming. The impossibility of conceiving is especially difficult for women to experience because they feel it as a personal failure or even guilt.
Female sterility has long been considered the only cause of marital infertility
The data, however, say that sterility is equally prevalent in both women and men, say family doctors. This division of sterility into male and female is not significant because both partners are involved in diagnosis and treatment. The most common causes of female infertility are hormonal imbalances and infections (because inflammatory conditions reduce the quality of the mucous membranes of the genitals and thus hinder or prevent the passage of sperm). Infertility in women can also be caused by anatomical abnormalities, immune disorders that lead to sperm intolerance and the appearance of the uterine lining in atypical places (for example, fallopian tubes or in the abdominal cavity – endometriosis).
Male sterility most often occurs as a result of anomalies of the genital organs, infections, disorders of the thyroid gland or testicles. Male infertility can also cause diabetes, psychogenic and immune disorders. That is why many specialist doctors (gynecologist, urologist, endocrinologist, immunologist, molecular biologist) participate in the diagnosis and treatment of sterility. Couples are advised to prepare in counseling centers (for sterility) a few months before starting treatment. In these institutions, spouses get acquainted with diagnostics and treatment, make contact with other couples with similar problems and exchange information. In counseling centers, couples are given insight into the results of treatment, which affects better mental preparation for treatment.
Infertility treatment is always prepared depending on the cause and sometimes in vitro fertilization is performed. The initial results of assisted reproduction vary. Today, positive results are achieved with every third couple. However, a negative result should not discourage people in whom the intervention was unsuccessful because medicine is constantly advancing and evolving along with technology while the results are getting better.
Multiple pregnancies are one of the serious complications of in vitro fertilization that still worries experts today
The consequence of such conceptions is the premature birth of children (insufficiently developed for survival outside the uterus). Large doses of drugs to stimulate the maturation of eggs are replaced by smaller ones (which seem much more fruitful and which avoid a whole range of symptoms) – to avoid this complication. One or two embryos are implanted in the uterus (after the eggs are separated and fertilized). All excess eggs are frozen so that the whole procedure would not be renewed if the intervention is unsuccessful.
Before in vitro fertilization, it is necessary to do a spermogram (microscopic examination of male gametes to determine the number, motility and shape of sperm). Any deviation from normal indicates possible chromosomal and genetic damage. If such abnormalities are detected then a DNA fragmentation index test is applied to reject genetically less valuable sperm. With the discovery of the ICSI method (intracytoplasmic injection), it is also possible for sterile men with a minimum number of sperm to become parents (because only 1 healthy sperm is enough for success). Today, several new genetic tests are used in the world’s centers for in vitro fertilization to select the most functional eggs and sperm in men who have less than 5 million of them. The latest diagnostic and therapeutic reproduction (IMSSI) is even more accurate because cell organelles are microscopically examined in a motile sperm. The SCSA method is also used to select the highest quality embryos from fertilized eggs.
Conditions for men
Science has managed to help a large number of people in procreation but there are still many factors involved in conception that need to be explored. Optimism in achieving results by in vitro fertilization is justified because new scientific knowledge in this area can be applied immediately. According to the latest findings, attitudes in therapy and diagnostics are constantly changing, especially when it comes to the use of hormones. The European Congress on Sterility has been held for 29 years, bringing together experts and doctors from all European countries. So far, even the best educated professionals in the best technological conditions can expect success with 30 to 40% of partners. The laws on the harmonization of criteria in the field of in vitro fertilization improve the work of public and private surgeries, because the success of such a sensitive intervention requires great control and availability of results.