8 stories of vaccines that have brought benefit to all mankind

http://www.nytimes.com

8 stories of vaccines that have brought benefit to all mankind
Vaccination and vaccines have had successes and failures over a long history of existence. The vaccine is a vaccine against infectious diseases. The word “vaccine” comes from the Latin word “vacca” which means “cow”. Vaccination is vaccination with a vaccine. Re-vaccination is a revaccination against a disease.

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  1. Smallpox was an extremely contagious disease in the 20th century. The disease has killed over 300 million people. It was thought that every third patient did not have a chance to survive. The human body is covered with purulent abscesses during this disease, which creates pain and agony for people. Many patients went blind and had scars on the skin for the rest of their lives. The first vaccine against this disease was made by humans after centuries of searching for a cure. The idea that an artificially induced mild form of the disease can create immunity probably originated in China. The Chinese inhaled through the nose the powder created from finely crushed scabs from the sick. Some put a piece of cotton wool soaked in pus from the patient’s wounds in the ears to gain immunity. On the African continent, human skin was pierced with a needle. They pulled a thread soaked in manure through the hole. In the 18th century, the first official smallpox vaccine was invented in Great Britain. The greatest credit for this invention went to British farmers. Farmers have noticed for a long time that smallpox is contagious to humans, although it is not fatal. British physician Edward Jenner observed this phenomenon. Dr. Jenner has created a reliable and safe smallpox vaccine based on cowpox.
  2. 2018 marks the full century since the outbreak of the Spanish flu pandemic. It is estimated that about a third of the world’s population at the time was infected with the virus. It is estimated that about 50 million victims. Some estimates indicate that twice as many people were killed. During 2005, scientists completely reconstructed the original virus. Scientists hope that studying this virus will help avoid the possibility of recurrence of pandemics of this magnitude.
  3. Plague and cholera are the oldest diseases in the history of mankind. They appeared in the late 19th century in Europe and countries around the world. The vaccine against these diseases was first devised by the Russian scientist Vladimir Havkin. Scientist Havkin tested both the plague vaccine and the cholera vaccine on guinea pigs and on his body. A number of successful tests have been performed. Then, a Russian biologist suggested to the officials of the Russian Empire to make enough doses for mass vaccination. The most difficult situation was in China and India, where the cholera epidemic took hundreds of thousands of lives. The British Empire then allowed a Russian biologist to try the vaccine in India. The locals thought the vaccine was actually poison, so they stoned the biologist. Havkin took out the vaccine with a dose of the vaccine and vaccinated himself. Only then did people agree to be vaccinated. Millions of people have been saved from a disease that humanity has so far failed to eradicate. Millions of people around the world have been saved mostly because of the selflessness, dedication and humanity of the Russian biologist.
  4. Smallpox is a disease that took 2.6 million people a year worldwide before the invention of vaccination. This disease still kills hundreds of thousands of people worldwide even though the vaccine has been around since 1963. In recent years even in Europe and the United States the number of smallpox cases is starting to grow. Doctors believe that the situation has worsened due to the negative attitudes that are spreading on social networks. Some people simply do not believe in the effectiveness of vaccines and avoid vaccination.
  5. In 1998, British doctor Andrew Wakefield also encouraged incitement to “disbelief” in vaccination. Dr. Wakefield published a sensational article stating that a combined vaccine against rubella, mumps and smallpox can reportedly cause autism in children. Wakefield’s medical license was revoked although the article was later refuted. People refuse to be vaccinated, which does not prevent the spread of smallpox, which is an extremely contagious disease. Only when 95% of the population is vaccinated is collective immunity obtained. There are a large number of opponents of vaccination. A percentage of 95% therefore seems almost impossible.
  6. Vaccination against polio is associated with one of the worst mistakes in the history of vaccinations. It happened at the beginning of the 20th century. This disease killed fewer people than plague and cholera but was more cruel to surviving patients. The polio virus attacks the nervous system. It often causes paralysis. Most patients remain confined to wheelchairs for the rest of their lives. Every tenth patient dies from suffocation due to paralysis of the lung muscles. The only salvation for these patients is artificial lung ventilation inside special chambers called “Iron Lungs” – People continued to live in these metal cocoons. In 1952, the American scientist and doctor Jonas Salk created a vaccine against polio. The number of patients with this diagnosis is sudden fell because of the invented vaccine. 1955 a tragedy occurs. The American company Cutter Laboratories is starting to sell more than 100,000 doses of medicine that contained live virus instead of inactivated one. Then the polio infection occurs. Ten children died while 160 children were left paralyzed for life.
  1. In the 19th century, out of respect for the physician Jenner, the French biologist, microbiologist and chemist Louis Pasteur suggested that all preparations for the prevention of dangerous diseases be called “vacca” from the Latin word vacca = cow. Pasteur dedicated his life to studying and creating vaccines after a private life tragedy. He experienced a personal tragedy because his three daughters died of typhus. Pasteur witnessed the horrific death of a five-year-old girl suffering from rabies. Pasteur puts a lot of effort into researching vaccines. The scientist finally manages to create a vaccine against rabies and other dangerous diseases – anthrax. Both vaccines are used successfully today.
  2. Today, in the midst of the corona virus pandemic, mass vaccination with vaccines that have been created so far is current. Scientists have managed to make vaccines and deliver them to the market in just a few months. That is why some people are afraid of getting vaccinated. There is a large selection of vaccines offered to people around the world. These vaccines are also the cause of heated debates that have been going on for a long time. Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johsnon, AstraZeneca, are just some of the publicly available vaccines. It should be borne in mind that every person has the right to their own opinion about vaccines and vaccination but also vaccines have brought benefits to all mankind. Louis Pasteur said: Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world.

http://www.pasteur.fr

http://www.livescience.com

http://www.newscientist.com

http://www.sciencehistory.org

http://www.jenner.ac.uk

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